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Do chimpanzees mourn their dead infants?
January 26, 2011
Katherine Cronin and Edwin van Leeuwen, who have recently joined the MPI's Comparative Cognitive Anthropology group, conducted their observations in May 2010 at Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage Trust in Zambia, where wild-born chimpanzees who have been rescued from illegal trade live in the largest social groups and enclosures in the world. Cronin and Van Leeuwen collaborated with Innocent Chitalu Mulenga, a Zambian researcher who is familiar with the behaviour of these chimpanzees, and Mark Bodamer, a professor of Psychology at Gonzaga University in Washington State, USA.
Close relationshipChimpanzee mothers typically are in close contact with their offspring for several years, carrying them almost continuously for two years and nursing until they are four to six years old. The close relationship between the mother and offspring continues for several years after weaning, and is one of the most important relationships in chimpanzee life.
Cronin and Van Leeuwen observed the behaviour that a female chimpanzee expressed toward her 16-month-old infant who had recently died. After carrying the infant’s dead body for more than a day, the mother laid the body out on the ground in a clearing and repeatedly approached the body and held her fingers against the infant’s face and neck for multiple seconds. She remained near the body for nearly an hour, then carried it over to a group of chimpanzees and watched them investigate the body. The next day, the mother was no longer carrying the body of the infant.See also this striking video.
Nearly nothing is known about how primates react to death of close individuals, what they understand about death, and whether they mourn. The MPI researchers therefore believe to have reported a unique transitional period as the mother learned about the death of her infant, a process never before reported in detail. But they largely refrain from interpretation, while providing extensive video to allow viewers the opportunity to judge for themselves what chimpanzees understand about death.
'The videos are extremely valuable, because they force one to stop and think about what might be happening in the minds of other primates', Cronin says. 'Whether a viewer ultimately decides that the chimpanzee is mourning, or simply curious about the corpse, is not nearly as important as people taking a moment to consider the possibilities.'