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The ENIGMA Consortium: Large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data

Thompson, P. M., Stein, J. L., Medland, S. E., Hibar, D. P., Vasquez, A. A., Renteria, M. E., Toro, R., Jahanshad, N., Schumann, G., Franke, B., Wright, M. J., Martin, N. G., Agartz, I., Alda, M., Alhusaini, S., Almasy, L., Almeida, J., Alpert, K., Andreasen, N. C., Andreassen, O. A., Apostolova, L. G., Appel, K., Armstrong, N. J., Aribisala, B., Bastin, M. E., Bauer, M., Bearden, C. E., Bergmann, Ø., Binder, E. B., Blangero, J., Bockholt, H. J., Bøen, E., Bois, C., Boomsma, D. I., Booth, T., Bowman, I. J., Bralten, J., Brouwer, R. M., Brunner, H. G., Brohawn, D. G., Buckner, R. L., Buitelaar, J., Bulayeva, K., Bustillo, J. R., Calhoun, V. D., Cannon, D. M., Cantor, R. M., Carless, M. A., Caseras, X., Cavalleri, G. L., Chakravarty, M. M., Chang, K. D., Ching, C. R. K., Christoforou, A., Cichon, S., Clark, V. P., Conrod, P., Coppola, G., Crespo-Facorro, B., Curran, J. E., Czisch, M., Deary, I. J., de Geus, E. J. C., den Braber, A., Delvecchio, G., Depondt, C., de Haan, L., de Zubicaray, G. I., Dima, D., Dimitrova, R., Djurovic, S., Dong, H., Donohoe, G., Duggirala, R., Dyer, T. D., Ehrlich, S., Ekman, C. J., Elvsåshagen, T., Emsell, L., Erk, S., Espeseth, T., Fagerness, J., Fears, S., Fedko, I., Fernández, G., Fisher, S. E., Foroud, T., Fox, P. T., Francks, C., Frangou, S., Frey, E. M., Frodl, T., Frouin, V., Garavan, H., Giddaluru, S., Glahn, D. C., Godlewska, B., Goldstein, R. Z., Gollub, R. L., Grabe, H. J., Grimm, O., Gruber, O., Guadalupe, T., Gur, R. E., Gur, R. C., Göring, H. H. H., Hagenaars, S., Hajek, T., Hall, G. B., Hall, J., Hardy, J., Hartman, C. A., Hass, J., Hatton, S. N., Haukvik, U. K., Hegenscheid, K., Heinz, A., Hickie, I. B., Ho, B.-C., Hoehn, D., Hoekstra, P. J., Hollinshead, M., Holmes, A. J., Homuth, G., Hoogman, M., Hong, L. E., Hosten, N., Hottenga, J.-J., Pol, H. E. H., Hwang, K. S., Jr, C. R. J., Jenkinson, M., Johnston, C., Jönsson, E. G., Kahn, R. S., Kasperaviciute, D., Kelly, S., Kim, S., Kochunov, P., Koenders, L., Krämer, B., Kwok, J. B. J., Lagopoulos, J., Laje, G., Landen, M., Landman, B. A., Lauriello, J., Lawrie, S. M., Lee, P. H., Le Hellard, S., Lemaître, H., Leonardo, C. D., Li, C.-s., Liberg, B., Liewald, D. C., Liu, X., Lopez, L. M., Loth, E., Lourdusamy, A., Luciano, M., Macciardi, F., Machielsen, M. W. J., MacQueen, G. M., Malt, U. F., Mandl, R., Manoach, D. S., Martinot, J.-L., Matarin, M., Mather, K. A., Mattheisen, M., Mattingsdal, M., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., McDonald, C., McIntosh, A. M., McMahon, F. J., McMahon, K. L., Meisenzahl, E., Melle, I., Milaneschi, Y., Mohnke, S., Montgomery, G. W., Morris, D. W., Moses, E. K., Mueller, B. A., Maniega, S. M., Mühleisen, T. W., Müller-Myhsok, B., Mwangi, B., Nauck, M., Nho, K., Nichols, T. E., Nilsson, L.-G., Nugent, A. C., Nyberg, L., Olvera, R. L., Oosterlaan, J., Ophoff, R. A., Pandolfo, M., Papalampropoulou-Tsiridou, M., Papmeyer, M., Paus, T., Pausova, Z., Pearlson, G. D., Penninx, B. W., Peterson, C. P., Pfennig, A., Phillips, M., Pike, G. B., Poline, J.-B., Potkin, S. G., Pütz, B., Ramasamy, A., Rasmussen, J., Rietschel, M., Rijpkema, M., Risacher, S. L., Roffman, J. L., Roiz-Santiañez, R., Romanczuk-Seiferth, N., Rose, E. J., Royle, N. A., Rujescu, D., Ryten, M., Sachdev, P. S., Salami, A., Satterthwaite, T. D., Savitz, J., Saykin, A. J., Scanlon, C., Schmaal, L., Schnack, H. G., Schork, A. J., Schulz, S. C., Schür, R., Seidman, L., Shen, L., Shoemaker, J. M., Simmons, A., Sisodiya, S. M., Smith, C., Smoller, J. W., Soares, J. C., Sponheim, S. R., Sprooten, E., Starr, J. M., Steen, V. M., Strakowski, S., Strike, L., Sussmann, J., Sämann, P. G., Teumer, A., Toga, A. W., Tordesillas-Gutierrez, D., Trabzuni, D., Trost, S., Turner, J., Van den Heuvel, M., van der Wee, N. J., van Eijk, K., van Erp, T. G. M., van Haren, N. E. M., van Ent, D. ‘., van Tol, M.-J., Hernández, M. C. V., Veltman, D. J., Versace, A., Völzke, H., Walker, R., Walter, H., Wang, L., Wardlaw, J. M., Weale, M. E., Weiner, M. W., Wen, W., Westlye, L. T., Whalley, H. C., Whelan, C. D., White, T., Winkler, A. M., Wittfeld, K., Woldehawariat, G., Wolf, C., Zilles, D., Zwiers, M. P., Thalamuthu, A., Schofield, P. R., Freimer, N. B., Lawrence, N. S., & Drevets, W. (2014). The ENIGMA Consortium: Large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 8(2), 153-182. doi:10.1007/s11682-013-9269-5.
The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA’s first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way
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The Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics is an institute of the German Max Planck Society. Our mission is to undertake basic research into the psychological,social and biological foundations of language. The goal is to understand how our minds and brains process language, how language interacts with other aspects of mind, and how we can learn languages of quite different types.

The institute is situated on the campus of the Radboud University. We participate in the Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, and have particularly close ties to that institute's Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging. We also participate in the Centre for Language Studies. A joint graduate school, the IMPRS in Language Sciences, links the Donders Institute, the CLS and the MPI.

 

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