Merel Wolf

Presentations

Displaying 1 - 5 of 5
  • Wolf, M. C., Smith, A. C., Rowland, C. F., & Meyer, A. S. (2019). Effects of modality on learning novel word - picture associations. Talk presented at the Experimental Psychology Society London Meeting. London, UK. 2019-01-03 - 2019-01-04.

    Abstract

    It is unknown whether modality affects the efficiency with which we learn novel word forms and their meanings. In this study, 60 participants were trained on 24 pseudowords, each paired with a pictorial meaning (novel object). Following a 20 minute filler task participants were tested on their ability to identify the picture-word form pairs on which they were trained when presented amongst foils. Word forms were presented in either their written or spoken form, with exposure to the written form equal to the speech duration of the spoken form. The between subjects design generated four participant groups 1) written training, written test; 2) written training, spoken test; 3) spoken training, written test; 4) spoken training, spoken test. Our results show a written training advantage: participants trained on written words were more accurate on the matching task. An ongoing follow-up experiment tests whether the written advantage is caused by additional time with the full word form, given that words can be read faster than the time taken for the spoken form to unfold. To test this, in training, written words were presented with sufficient time for participants to read, yet maximally half the duration of the spoken form in experiment 1.
  • Wolf, M. C., Smith, A. C., Rowland, C. F., & Meyer, A. S. (2019). Modality effects in novel picture-word form associations. Poster presented at Crossing the Boundaries: Language in Interaction Symposium, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

    Abstract

    It is unknown whether modality affects the efficiency with which humans learn novel word forms and their meanings, with previous studies reporting both written and auditory advantages. The current study implements controls whose absence in previous work likely offers explanation for such contradictory findings. In two novel word learning experiments, participants were trained and tested on pseudoword - novel object pairs, with controls on: modality of test, modality of meaning, duration of exposure and transparency of word form. In both experiments word forms were presented in either their written or spoken form, each paired with a pictorial meaning (novel object). Following a 20-minute filler task, participants were tested on their ability to identify the picture-word form pairs on which they were trained. A between subjects design generated four participant groups per experiment 1) written training, written test; 2) written training, spoken test; 3) spoken training, written test; 4) spoken training, spoken test. In Experiment 1 the written stimulus was presented for a time period equal to the duration of the spoken form. Results showed that when the duration of exposure was equal, participants displayed a written training benefit. Given words can be read faster than the time taken for the spoken form to unfold, in Experiment 2 the written form was presented for 300 ms, sufficient time to read the word yet 65% shorter than the duration of the spoken form. No modality effect was observed under these conditions, when exposure to the word form was equivalent. These results demonstrate, at least for proficient readers, that when exposure to the word form is controlled across modalities the efficiency with which word form-meaning associations are learnt does not differ. Our results therefore suggest that, although we typically begin as aural-only word learners, we ultimately converge on developing learning mechanisms that learn equally efficiently from both written and spoken materials.
  • Wolf, M. C., Smith, A. C., Meyer, A. S., & Rowland, C. F. (2019). Modality effects in vocabulary acquisition. Talk presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci 2019). Montreal, Canada. 2019-07-24 - 2019-07-27.

    Abstract

    It is unknown whether modality affects the efficiency with which humans learn novel word forms and their meanings, with previous studies reporting both written and auditory advantages. The current study implements controls whose absence in previous work likely offers explanation for such contradictory findings. In two novel word learning experiments, participants were trained and tested on pseudoword - novel object pairs, with controls on: modality of test, modality of meaning, duration of exposure and transparency of word form. In both experiments word forms were presented in either their written or spoken form, each paired with a pictorial meaning (novel object). Following a 20-minute filler task, participants were tested on their ability to identify the picture-word form pairs on which they were trained. A between subjects design generated four participant groups per experiment 1) written training, written test; 2) written training, spoken test; 3) spoken training, written test; 4) spoken training, spoken test. In Experiment 1 the written stimulus was presented for a time period equal to the duration of the spoken form. Results showed that when the duration of exposure was equal, participants displayed a written training benefit. Given words can be read faster than the time taken for the spoken form to unfold, in Experiment 2 the written form was presented for 300 ms, sufficient time to read the word yet 65% shorter than the duration of the spoken form. No modality effect was observed under these conditions, when exposure to the word form was equivalent. These results demonstrate, at least for proficient readers, that when exposure to the word form is controlled across modalities the efficiency with which word form-meaning associations are learnt does not differ. Our results therefore suggest that, although we typically begin as aural-only word learners, we ultimately converge on developing learning mechanisms that learn equally efficiently from both written and spoken materials.
  • Wolf, M. C., Muijserlaar, M., & de Bree, E. (2018). The relationship between reading and listening comprehension: Overlap in constructs and foundational skills. Poster presented at the IMPRS Conference on Interdisciplinary Approaches in the Language Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
  • Wolf, M. C. (2015). Het verschil tussen hardop en stillezen wat betreft leessnelheid en tekstbegrip en de invloed hierop van fonologisch bewustzijn, benoemsnelheid en visuele aandachtsspanne. Poster presented at Student Research Conference, Tilburg University.

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