Publications

Displaying 1 - 90 of 90
  • Ameka, F. K., & Wilkins, D. (1996). Semantics. In H. Goebl, P. H. Nelde, Z. Stary, & W. Wölck (Eds.), Contact linguistics: An international handbook of contemporary research. Volume 1 (pp. 130-137). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Bauer, B. L. M. (1996). The verb in indirect speech in Old French. In T. Janssen, & W. Van der Wurff (Eds.), Reported Speech (pp. 75-96). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
  • Bock, K., & Levelt, W. J. M. (1994). Language production: Grammatical encoding. In M. A. Gernsbacher (Ed.), Handbook of Psycholinguistics (pp. 945-984). San Diego,: Academic Press.
  • Bouman, M. A., & Levelt, W. J. M. (1994). Werner E. Reichardt: Levensbericht. In H. W. Pleket (Ed.), Levensberichten en herdenkingen 1993 (pp. 75-80). Amsterdam: Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen.
  • Bowerman, M. (1996). Argument structure and learnability: Is a solution in sight? In J. Johnson, M. L. Juge, & J. L. Moxley (Eds.), Proceedings of the Twenty-second Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 16-19, 1996. General Session and Parasession on The Role of Learnability in Grammatical Theory (pp. 454-468). Berkeley Linguistics Society.
  • Bowerman, M. (1994). Learning a semantic system: What role do cognitive predispositions play? [Reprint]. In P. Bloom (Ed.), Language acquisition: Core readings (pp. 329-363). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

    Abstract

    Reprint from: Bowerman, M. (1989). Learning a semantic system: What role do cognitive predispositions play? In M.L. Rice & R.L Schiefelbusch (Ed.), The teachability of language (pp. 133-169). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
  • Bowerman, M. (1996). Learning how to structure space for language: A crosslinguistic perspective. In P. Bloom, M. A. Peterson, L. Nadel, & M. F. Garrett (Eds.), Language and space (pp. 385-436). Cambridge, MA: MIT press.
  • Bowerman, M. (1996). The origins of children's spatial semantic categories: Cognitive vs. linguistic determinants. In J. J. Gumperz, & S. C. Levinson (Eds.), Rethinking linguistic relativity (pp. 145-176). Cambridge University Press.
  • Brown, C. M., Hagoort, P., & Swaab, T. Y. (1996). Neurophysiological evidence for a temporal disorganization in aphasic patients with comprehension deficits. In W. Widdig, I. Ohlendorff, T. A. Pollow, & J. Malin (Eds.), Aphasiatherapie im Wandel (pp. 89-122). Freiburg: Hochschul Verlag.
  • Cutler, A. (1970). An experimental method for semantic field study. Linguistic Communications, 2, 87-94.

    Abstract

    This paper emphasizes the need for empirical research and objective discovery procedures in semantics, and illustrates a method by which these goals may be obtained. The aim of the methodology described is to provide a description of the internal structure of a semantic field by eliciting the description--in an objective, standardized manner--from a representative group of native speakers. This would produce results that would be equally obtainable by any linguist using the same method under the same conditions with a similarly representative set of informants. The standardized method suggested by the author is the Semantic Differential developed by C. E. Osgood in the 1950's. Applying this method to semantic research, it is further hypothesized that, should different members of a semantic field be employed as concepts on a Semantic Differential task, a factor analysis of the results would reveal the dimensions operative within the body of data. The author demonstrates the use of the Semantic Differential and factor analysis in an actual experiment.
  • Cutler, A. (1994). How human speech recognition is affected by phonological diversity among languages. In R. Togneri (Ed.), Proceedings of the fifth Australian International Conference on Speech Science and Technology: Vol. 1 (pp. 285-288). Canberra: Australian Speech Science and Technology Association.

    Abstract

    Listeners process spoken language in ways which are adapted to the phonological structure of their native language. As a consequence, non-native speakers do not listen to a language in the same way as native speakers; moreover, listeners may use their native language listening procedures inappropriately with foreign input. With sufficient experience, however, it may be possible to inhibit this latter (counter-productive) behavior.
  • Cutler, A., Norris, D., & McQueen, J. M. (1996). Lexical access in continuous speech: Language-specific realisations of a universal model. In T. Otake, & A. Cutler (Eds.), Phonological structure and language processing: Cross-linguistic studies (pp. 227-242). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Cutler, A., & Otake, T. (1996). Phonological structure and its role in language processing. In T. Otake, & A. Cutler (Eds.), Phonological structure and language processing: Cross-linguistic studies (pp. 1-12). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Cutler, A., & Young, D. (1994). Rhythmic structure of word blends in English. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (pp. 1407-1410). Kobe: Acoustical Society of Japan.

    Abstract

    Word blends combine fragments from two words, either in speech errors or when a new word is created. Previous work has demonstrated that in Japanese, such blends preserve moraic structure; in English they do not. A similar effect of moraic structure is observed in perceptual research on segmentation of continuous speech in Japanese; English listeners, by contrast, exploit stress units in segmentation, suggesting that a general rhythmic constraint may underlie both findings. The present study examined whether mis parallel would also hold for word blends. In spontaneous English polysyllabic blends, the source words were significantly more likely to be split before a strong than before a weak (unstressed) syllable, i.e. to be split at a stress unit boundary. In an experiment in which listeners were asked to identify the source words of blends, significantly more correct detections resulted when splits had been made before strong syllables. Word blending, like speech segmentation, appears to be constrained by language rhythm.
  • Cutler, A. (1996). Prosody and the word boundary problem. In J. L. Morgan, & K. Demuth (Eds.), Signal to syntax: Bootstrapping from speech to grammar in early acquisition (pp. 87-99). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Cutler, A. (1996). The comparative study of spoken-language processing. In H. T. Bunnell (Ed.), Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Spoken Language Processing: Vol. 1 (pp. 1). New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

    Abstract

    Psycholinguists are saddled with a paradox. Their aim is to construct a model of human language processing, which will hold equally well for the processing of any language, but this aim cannot be achieved just by doing experiments in any language. They have to compare processing of many languages, and actively search for effects which are specific to a single language, even though a model which is itself specific to a single language is really the last thing they want.
  • Cutler, A., & Otake, T. (1996). The processing of word prosody in Japanese. In P. McCormack, & A. Russell (Eds.), Proceedings of the 6th Australian International Conference on Speech Science and Technology (pp. 599-604). Canberra: Australian Speech Science and Technology Association.
  • Cutler, A., McQueen, J. M., Baayen, R. H., & Drexler, H. (1994). Words within words in a real-speech corpus. In R. Togneri (Ed.), Proceedings of the 5th Australian International Conference on Speech Science and Technology: Vol. 1 (pp. 362-367). Canberra: Australian Speech Science and Technology Association.

    Abstract

    In a 50,000-word corpus of spoken British English the occurrence of words embedded within other words is reported. Within-word embedding in this real speech sample is common, and analogous to the extent of embedding observed in the vocabulary. Imposition of a syllable boundary matching constraint reduces but by no means eliminates spurious embedding. Embedded words are most likely to overlap with the beginning of matrix words, and thus may pose serious problems for speech recognisers.
  • D'Avis, F.-J., & Gretsch, P. (1994). Variations on "Variation": On the Acquisition of Complementizers in German. In R. Tracy, & E. Lattey (Eds.), How Tolerant is Universal Grammar? (pp. 59-109). Tübingen, Germany: Max-Niemeyer-Verlag.

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  • Drexler, H., Verbunt, A., & Wittenburg, P. (1996). Max Planck Electronic Information Desk. In B. den Brinker, J. Beek, A. Hollander, & R. Nieuwboer (Eds.), Zesde workshop computers in de psychologie: Programma en uitgebreide samenvattingen (pp. 64-66). Amsterdam: Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, IFKB.
  • Gumperz, J. J., & Levinson, S. C. (1996). Introduction to part I. In J. J. Gumperz, & S. C. Levinson (Eds.), Rethinking linguistic relativity (pp. 21-36). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Gumperz, J. J., & Levinson, S. C. (1996). Introduction to part III. In J. J. Gumperz, & S. C. Levinson (Eds.), Rethinking linguistic relativity (pp. 225-231). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Gumperz, J. J., & Levinson, S. C. (1996). Introduction: Linguistic relativity re-examined. In J. J. Gumperz, & S. C. Levinson (Eds.), Rethinking linguistic relativity (pp. 1-20). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Hagoort, P., & Brown, C. M. (1994). Brain responses to lexical ambiguity resolution and parsing. In C. Clifton Jr, L. Frazier, & K. Rayner (Eds.), Perspectives on sentence processing (pp. 45-81). Hilsdale NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Kempen, G. (1996). "De zwoele groei van den zinsbouw": De wonderlijke levende grammatica van Jac. van Ginneken uit De Roman van een Kleuter (1917). Bezorgd en van een nawoord voorzien door Gerard Kempen. In A. Foolen, & J. Noordegraaf (Eds.), De taal is kennis van de ziel: Opstellen over Jac. van Ginneken (1877-1945) (pp. 173-216). Münster: Nodus Publikationen.
  • Kempen, G. (1996). Computational models of syntactic processing in human language comprehension. In T. Dijkstra, & K. De Smedt (Eds.), Computational psycholinguistics: Symbolic and subsymbolic models of language processing (pp. 192-220). London: Taylor & Francis.
  • Kempen, G., & Janssen, S. (1996). Omspellen: Reuze(n)karwei of peule(n)schil? In H. Croll, & J. Creutzberg (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5e Dag van het Document (pp. 143-146). Projectbureau Croll en Creutzberg.
  • Kempen, G. (1996). Human language technology can modernize writing and grammar instruction. In COLING '96 Proceedings of the 16th conference on Computational linguistics - Volume 2 (pp. 1005-1006). Stroudsburg, PA: Association for Computational Linguistics.
  • Kempen, G. (1994). Innovative language checking software for Dutch. In J. Van Gent, & E. Peeters (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2e Dag van het Document (pp. 99-100). Delft: TNO Technisch Physische Dienst.
  • Kempen, G. (1994). The unification space: A hybrid model of human syntactic processing [Abstract]. In Cuny 1994 - The 7th Annual CUNY Conference on Human Sentence Processing. March 17-19, 1994. CUNY Graduate Center, New York.
  • Kempen, G., & Dijkstra, A. (1994). Toward an integrated system for grammar, writing and spelling instruction. In L. Appelo, & F. De Jong (Eds.), Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Proceedings of the Seventh Twente Workshop on Language Technology (pp. 41-46). Enschede: University of Twente.
  • Klein, W. (1996). Essentially social: On the origin of linguistic knowledge in the individual. In P. Baltes, & U. Staudinger (Eds.), Interactive minds (pp. 88-107). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Klein, W. (1994). Für eine rein zeitliche Deutung von Tempus und Aspekt. In R. Baum (Ed.), Lingua et Traditio: Festschrift für Hans Helmut Christmann zum 65. Geburtstag (pp. 409-422). Tübingen: Narr.
  • Klein, W. (1994). Keine Känguruhs zur Linken: Über die Variabilität von Raumvorstellungen und ihren Ausdruck in der Sprache. In H.-J. Kornadt, J. Grabowski, & R. Mangold-Allwinn (Eds.), Sprache und Kognition (pp. 163-182). Heidelberg, Berlin, Oxford: Spektrum.
  • Klein, W. (1994). Learning how to express temporality in a second language. In A. G. Ramat, & M. Vedovelli (Eds.), Società di linguistica Italiana, SLI 34: Italiano - lingua seconda/lingua straniera: Atti del XXVI Congresso (pp. 227-248). Roma: Bulzoni.
  • Klein, W. (1996). Language acquisition at different ages. In D. Magnusson (Ed.), Individual development over the lifespan: Biological and psychosocial perspectives (pp. 88-108). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Kuijpers, C., Van Donselaar, W., & Cutler, A. (1996). Phonological variation: Epenthesis and deletion of schwa in Dutch. In H. T. Bunnell (Ed.), Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Spoken Language Processing: Vol. 1 (pp. 94-97). New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

    Abstract

    Two types of phonological variation in Dutch, resulting from optional rules, are schwa epenthesis and schwa deletion. In a lexical decision experiment it was investigated whether the phonological variants were processed similarly to the standard forms. It was found that the two types of variation patterned differently. Words with schwa epenthesis were processed faster and more accurately than the standard forms, whereas words with schwa deletion led to less fast and less accurate responses. The results are discussed in relation to the role of consonant-vowel alternations in speech processing and the perceptual integrity of onset clusters.
  • Levelt, W. J. M. (1970). A scaling approach to the study of syntactic relations. In G. B. Flores d'Arcais, & W. J. M. Levelt (Eds.), Advances in psycholinguistics (pp. 109-121). Amsterdam: North Holland.
  • Levelt, W. J. M. (1996). Foreword. In T. Dijkstra, & K. De Smedt (Eds.), Computational psycholinguistics (pp. ix-xi). London: Taylor & Francis.
  • Levelt, W. J. M. (1996). Linguistic intuitions and beyond. In W. J. M. Levelt (Ed.), Advanced psycholinguistics: A Bressanone retrospective for Giovanni B. Floris d'Arcais (pp. 31-35). Nijmegen: Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.
  • Levelt, W. J. M., & Plomp, R. (1962). Musical consonance and critical bandwidth. In Proceedings of the 4th International Congress Acoustics (pp. 55-55).
  • Levelt, W. J. M. (1970). Hierarchical clustering algorithms in the psychology of grammar. In G. B. Flores d'Arcais, & W. J. M. Levelt (Eds.), Advances in psycholinguistics (pp. 101-108). Amsterdam: North Holland.
  • Levelt, W. J. M. (1962). Motion breaking and the perception of causality. In A. Michotte (Ed.), Causalité, permanence et réalité phénoménales: Etudes de psychologie expérimentale (pp. 244-258). Louvain: Publications Universitaires.
  • Levelt, W. J. M. (1994). Onder woorden brengen: Beschouwingen over het spreekproces. In Haarlemse voordrachten: voordrachten gehouden in de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem. Haarlem: Hollandsche maatschappij der wetenschappen.
  • Levelt, W. J. M. (1996). Perspective taking and ellipsis in spatial descriptions. In P. Bloom, M. A. Peterson, L. Nadel, & M. F. Garrett (Eds.), Language and space (pp. 77-107). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Levelt, W. J. M. (1994). On the skill of speaking: How do we access words? In Proceedings ICSLP 94 (pp. 2253-2258). Yokohama: The Acoustical Society of Japan.
  • Levelt, W. J. M., & Plomp, K. (1968). The appreciation of musical intervals. In J. M. M. Aler (Ed.), Proceedings of the fifth International Congress of Aesthetics, Amsterdam 1964 (pp. 901-904). The Hague: Mouton.
  • Levelt, W. J. M. (1994). The skill of speaking. In P. Bertelson, P. Eelen, & G. d'Ydewalle (Eds.), International perspectives on psychological science: Vol. 1. Leading themes (pp. 89-103). Hove: Erlbaum.
  • Levelt, W. J. M. (1994). What can a theory of normal speaking contribute to AAC? In ISAAC '94 Conference Book and Proceedings. Hoensbroek: IRV.
  • Levinson, S. C. (1994). Deixis. In R. E. Asher (Ed.), Encyclopedia of language and linguistics (pp. 853-857). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Levinson, S. C. (1996). Frames of reference and Molyneux's question: Cross-linguistic evidence. In P. Bloom, M. Peterson, L. Nadel, & M. Garrett (Eds.), Language and space (pp. 109-169). Cambridge, MA: MIT press.
  • Levinson, S. C. (1996). Introduction to part II. In J. J. Gumperz, & S. C. Levinson (Eds.), Rethinking linguistic relativity (pp. 133-144). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Levinson, S. C. (1996). Relativity in spatial conception and description. In J. J. Gumperz, & S. C. Levinson (Eds.), Rethinking linguistic relativity (pp. 177-202). Cambridge University Press.
  • Levinson, S. C., & Senft, G. (1994). Wie lösen Sprecher von Sprachen mit absoluten und relativen Systemen des räumlichen Verweisens nicht-sprachliche räumliche Aufgaben? In Jahrbuch der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft 1994 (pp. 295-299). München: Generalverwaltung der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft München.
  • Levinson, S. C., & Senft, G. (1996). Zur Semantik der Verben INTRARE und EXIRE in verschieden Sprachen. In Jahrbuch der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft 1996 (pp. 340-344). München: Generalverwaltung der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft München.
  • Norris, D., McQueen, J. M., & Cutler, A. (1994). Competition and segmentation in spoken word recognition. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Spoken Language Processing: Vol. 1 (pp. 401-404). Yokohama: PACIFICO.

    Abstract

    This paper describes recent experimental evidence which shows that models of spoken word recognition must incorporate both inhibition between competing lexical candidates and a sensitivity to metrical cues to lexical segmentation. A new version of the Shortlist [1][2] model incorporating the Metrical Segmentation Strategy [3] provides a detailed simulation of the data.
  • Ozyurek, A. (1994). How children talk about a conversation. In K. Beals, J. Denton, R. Knippen, L. Melnar, H. Suzuki, & E. Zeinfeld (Eds.), Papers from the Thirtieth Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society: Main Session (pp. 309-319). Chicago, Ill: Chicago Linguistic Society.
  • Ozyurek, A. (1994). How children talk about conversations: Development of roles and voices. In E. V. Clark (Ed.), Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Child Language Research Forum (pp. 197-206). Stanford: CSLI Publications.
  • Pederson, E., & Wilkins, D. (1996). A cross-linguistic questionnaire on 'demonstratives'. In S. C. Levinson (Ed.), Manual for the 1996 Field Season (pp. 1-11). Nijmegen: Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics. doi:10.17617/2.3003259.

    Abstract

    Demonstrative terms (e.g., this and that) are key items in understanding how a language constructs and interprets spatial relationships. This in-depth questionnaire explores how demonstratives (and similar spatial deixis forms) function in the research language, covering such topics as their morphology and syntax, semantic dimensions, and co-occurring gesture practices. Questionnaire responses should ideally be based on natural, situated discourse as well as elicitation with consultants.
  • Pederson, E., & Senft, G. (1996). Route descriptions: interactive games with Eric's maze task. In S. C. Levinson (Ed.), Manual for the 1996 Field Season (pp. 15-17). Nijmegen: Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics. doi:10.17617/2.3003287.

    Abstract

    What are the preferred ways to describe spatial relationships in different linguistic and cultural groups, and how does this interact with non-linguistic spatial awareness? This game was devised as an interactive supplement to several items that collect information on the encoding and understanding of spatial relationships, especially as relevant to “route descriptions”. This is a director-matcher task, where one consultant has access to stimulus materials that shows a “target” situation, and directs another consultant (who cannot see the target) to recreate this arrangement.
  • Senft, G. (1994). Darum gehet hin und lehret alle Völker: Mission, Kultur- und Sprachwandel am Beispiel der Trobriand-Insulaner von Papua-Neuguinea. In P. Stüben (Ed.), Seelenfischer: Mission, Stammesvölker und Ökologie (pp. 71-91). Gießen: Focus.
  • Senft, G. (1996). Phatic communion. In J. Verschueren, J.-O. Östman, & J. Blommaert (Eds.), Handbook of Pragmatics (loose leaf installment) (loose leaf installment, 1995). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  • Seuren, P. A. M. (1994). Accommodation and presupposition. In R. E. Asher, & J. M. Y. Simpson (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (vol. 1) (pp. 15-16). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Seuren, P. A. M. (1994). Categorial presupposition. In R. E. Asher, & J. M. Y. Simpson (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (vol. 2) (pp. 477-478). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Seuren, P. A. M. (1994). Denotation in discourse semantics. In R. E. Asher, & J. M. Y. Simpson (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (vol. 2) (pp. 859-860). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Seuren, P. A. M. (1994). Discourse semantics. In R. E. Asher, & J. M. Y. Simpson (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (vol. 2) (pp. 982-993). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Seuren, P. A. M. (1994). Donkey sentences. In R. E. Asher, & J. M. Y. Simpson (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (vol. 2) (pp. 1059-1060). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Seuren, P. A. M. (1994). Discourse domain. In R. E. Asher, & J. M. Y. Simpson (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (vol. 2) (pp. 964-965). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Seuren, P. A. M. (1994). Existence predicate (discourse semantics). In R. E. Asher, & J. M. Y. Simpson (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (vol. 3) (pp. 1190-1191). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Seuren, P. A. M. (1994). Existential presupposition. In R. E. Asher, & J. M. Y. Simpson (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (vol. 3) (pp. 1191-1192). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Seuren, P. A. M. (1994). Factivity. In R. E. Asher, & J. M. Y. Simpson (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (vol. 3) (pp. 1205). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Seuren, P. A. M. (1994). Function, set-theoretical. In R. E. Asher, & J. M. Y. Simpson (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (vol. 3) (pp. 1314). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Seuren, P. A. M. (1994). Lexical conditions. In R. E. Asher, & J. M. Y. Simpson (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (vol. 4) (pp. 2140-2141). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Seuren, P. A. M. (1994). Projection problem. In R. E. Asher, & J. M. Y. Simpson (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (vol. 6) (pp. 3358-3360). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Seuren, P. A. M. (1994). Presupposition. In R. E. Asher, & J. M. Y. Simpson (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (vol. 6) (pp. 3311-3320). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Seuren, P. A. M. (1994). Prediction and retrodiction. In R. E. Asher, & J. M. Y. Simpson (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (vol. 6) (pp. 3302-3303). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Seuren, P. A. M. (1994). Incrementation. In R. E. Asher, & J. M. Y. Simpson (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (vol. 3) (pp. 1646). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Seuren, P. A. M. (1996). Parameters van variatie. In R. Van Hout, & J. Kruijsen (Eds.), Taalvariaties: Toonzettingen en modulaties op een thema (pp. 211-221). Dordrecht: Foris.
  • Seuren, P. A. M. (1994). Sign. In R. E. Asher, & J. M. Y. Simpson (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (vol. 7) (pp. 3885-3888). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Seuren, P. A. M. (1994). Syntax and semantics: Relationship. In R. E. Asher, & J. M. Y. Simpson (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (vol. 8) (pp. 4494-4500). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Seuren, P. A. M. (1994). The computational lexicon: All lexical content is predicate. In Z. Yusoff (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Linguistic Applications 26-28 July 1994 (pp. 211-216). Penang: Universiti Sains Malaysia, Unit Terjemahan Melalui Komputer (UTMK).
  • Seuren, P. A. M. (1996). What a universal semantic interlingua can do. In A. Zamulin (Ed.), Perspectives of System Informatics. Proceedings of the Andrei Ershov Second International Memorial Conference, Novosibirsk, Akademgorodok, June 25-28,1996 (pp. 41-42). Novosibirsk: A.P. Ershov Institute of Informatics Systems.
  • Seuren, P. A. M. (1994). Translation relations in semantic syntax. In G. Bouma, & G. Van Noord (Eds.), CLIN IV: Papers from the Fourth CLIN Meeting (pp. 149-162). Groningen: Vakgroep Alfa-informatica, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
  • De Smedt, K., & Kempen, G. (1996). Discontinuous constituency in Segment Grammar. In H. C. Bunt, & A. Van Horck (Eds.), Discontinuous constituency (pp. 141-163). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Stolz, C. (1996). Bloxes: an interactive task for the elicitation of dimensional expressions. In S. C. Levinson (Ed.), Manual for the 1996 Field Season (pp. 25-31). Nijmegen: Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics. doi:10.17617/2.3003352.

    Abstract

    “Dimensional expressions” single out and describe one symmetric axis of a 1D, 2D, or 3D object (e.g., The road is long). “Bloxes” is an interactive, object-matching task that elicits descriptions of dimensional contrasts between simple geometrical objects (rectangular blocks, rectangular boxes, and cylinders). The aim is to explore the linguistic encoding of dimensions, focusing on features of axis, orientation, flatness/solidity, size and shape. See also 'Suggestions for field research on dimensional expressions' (https://doi.org/10.17617/2.3003382).
  • Stolz, C. (1996). Suggestions for field research on dimensional expressions. In S. C. Levinson (Ed.), Manual for the 1996 Field Season (pp. 32-45). Nijmegen: Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics. doi:10.17617/2.3003382.

    Abstract

    The aim of this task is to explore the linguistic expression of “dimensions” — e.g., the height, width or depth — of objects in the world around us. In a dimensional expression, one symmetric axis of a 1D, 2D, or 3D object is singled out and described (e.g., That man is tall). Dimensional expressions in different languages show a range of different combinatorial and extensional uses. This document guides the researcher through some spatial situations where contrastive features of dimensional expressions are likely to be observable.
  • Van Valin Jr., R. D. (1994). Extraction restrictions, competing theories and the argument from the poverty of the stimulus. In S. D. Lima, R. Corrigan, & G. K. Iverson (Eds.), The reality of linguistic rules (pp. 243-259). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
  • Van Donselaar, W., Kuijpers, C., & Cutler, A. (1996). How do Dutch listeners process words with epenthetic schwa? In H. T. Bunnell (Ed.), Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Spoken Language Processing: Vol. 1 (pp. 149-152). New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

    Abstract

    Dutch words with certain final consonant clusters are subject to optional schwa epenthesis. The present research aimed at investigating how Dutch listeners deal with this type of phonological variation. By means of syllable monitoring experiments, it was investigated whether Dutch listeners process words with epenthetic schwa (e.g., ’balluk’) as bisyllabic words or rather as monosyllabic words. Real words (e.g., ’balk’, ’balluk’) and pseudowords (e.g., ’golk’, ’golluk’) were compared, to examine effects of lexical representation. No difference was found between monitoring times for BAL targets in ’balluk’ carriers as compared to ’balk’ carriers. This suggests that words with epenthetic schwa are not processed as bisyllabic words. The effects for the pseudo-words paralleled those for the real words, which suggests that they are not due to lexical representation but rather to the application of phonological rules.
  • Van Berkum, J. J. A. (1996). The linguistics of gender. In The psycholinguistics of grammatical gender: Studies in language comprehension and production (pp. 14-44). Nijmegen University Press.

    Abstract

    This chapter explores grammatical gender as a linguistic phenomenon. First, I define gender in terms of agreement, and look at the parts of speech that can take gender agreement. Because it relates to assumptions underlying much psycholinguistic gender research, I also examine the reasons why gender systems are thought to emerge, change, and disappear. Then, I describe the gender system of Dutch. The frequent confusion about the number of genders in Dutch will be resolved by looking at the history of the system, and the role of pronominal reference therein. In addition, I report on three lexical- statistical analyses of the distribution of genders in the language. After having dealt with Dutch, I look at whether the genders of Dutch and other languages are more or less randomly assigned, or whether there is some system to it. In contrast to what many people think, regularities do indeed exist. Native speakers could in principle exploit such regularities to compute rather than memorize gender, at least in part. Although this should be taken into account as a possibility, I will also argue that it is by no means a necessary implication.
  • Wittenburg, P., van Kuijk, D., & Dijkstra, T. (1996). Modeling human word recognition with sequences of artificial neurons. In C. von der Malsburg, W. von Seelen, J. C. Vorbrüggen, & B. Sendhoff (Eds.), Artificial Neural Networks — ICANN 96. 1996 International Conference Bochum, Germany, July 16–19, 1996 Proceedings (pp. 347-352). Berlin: Springer.

    Abstract

    A new psycholinguistically motivated and neural network based model of human word recognition is presented. In contrast to earlier models it uses real speech as input. At the word layer acoustical and temporal information is stored by sequences of connected sensory neurons which pass on sensor potentials to a word neuron. In experiments with a small lexicon which includes groups of very similar word forms, the model meets high standards with respect to word recognition and simulates a number of wellknown psycholinguistical effects.

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