The investigation of the brain architecture for language has been mostly studied from a perceptive point of view (i.e. while listening or reading), whereas neuroimaging studies with speaking are more rare. The aim of this thesis was to focus on brain activity during the productive side of language, and to understand to what extent there are similarities in the brain networks for language production and comprehension. The chapters of this thesis focus on the brain responses to syntactic processing during a task and spontaneous production, and on the patterns of brain encoding of sentence meaning while speaking. The results suggest that there are some differences in the brain responses to production and comprehension, both spatially and in the timing of responses, that may relate to the different goals and requirements of production and comprehension. In general, though, there is evidence that the same brain regions are used for linguistic processing during speaking and listening.