Eye-voice span during
rapid automatized naming: Evidence of reduced automaticity in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and their siblings
Hogan-Brown, A. L., Hoedemaker, R. S., Gordon, P. C., & Losh, M.
Eye-voice span during rapid automatized naming: Evidence of reduced automaticity in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and their siblings. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 6
(1): 33. doi:10.1186/1866-1955-6-33.
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents demonstrate impaired performance in
rapid automatized naming (RAN), a task that recruits a variety of linguistic and executive processes. Though the basic
processes that contribute to RAN differences remain unclear, eye-voice relationships, as measured through eye tracking,
can provide insight into cognitive and perceptual processes contributing to RAN performance. For example, in RAN,
eye-voice span (EVS), the distance ahead the eyes are when articulation of a target item's label begins, is an indirect
measure of automaticity of the processes underlying RAN. The primary objective of this study was to investigate
automaticity in naming processes, as indexed by EVS during RAN. The secondary objective was to characterize RAN
difficulties in individuals with ASD and their siblings.
Participants (aged 15
33 years) included 21 individuals with ASD, 23 siblings of individuals with ASD, and 24
control subjects, group-matched on chronological age. Naming time, frequency of errors, and EVS were measured
during a RAN task and compared across groups.
A stepwise pattern of RAN performance was observed, with individuals with ASD demonstrating the slowest
naming across all RAN conditions, controls demonstrating the fastest naming, and siblings demonstrating intermediate
performance. Individuals with ASD exhibited smaller EVSs than controls on all RAN conditions, and siblings exhibited
smaller EVSs during number naming (the most highly automatized type of naming). EVSs were correlated with naming
times in controls only, and only in the more automatized conditions.
These results suggest that reduced automaticity in the component processes of RAN may underpin
differences in individuals with ASD and their siblings. These findings also provide further support that RAN abilities are
impacted by genetic liability to ASD. This study has important implications for understanding the underlying skills
contributing to language-related deficits in ASD.