Conversational interaction in the scanner: Mentalizing during language processing as revealed by MEG
Bögels, S., Barr, D., Garrod, S., & Kessler, K.
Conversational interaction in the scanner: Mentalizing during language processing as revealed by MEG. Cerebral Cortex, 25
(9), 3219-3234. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhu116.
Humans are especially good at taking another’s perspective —
representing what others might be thinking or experiencing. This
“mentalizing” capacity is apparent in everyday human interactions and conversations. We investigated its neural basis using magnetoencephalography. We focused on whether mentalizing was engaged spontaneously and routinely to understand an utterance’s meaning or largely on-demand, to restore "common ground" when expectations were violated. Participants conversed with 1 of 2 confederate speakers and established tacit agreements about objects’ names. In a subsequent “test” phase, some of these agreements were violated by either the same or a different speaker. Our analysis of the neural processing of test phase utterances revealed recruitment of neural circuits associated with language (temporal cortex), episodic memory (e.g., medial temporal lobe), and mentalizing (temporo-parietal junction and ventro-medial prefrontal cortex). Theta oscillations (3 - 7 Hz) were modulated most prominently, and we observed phase coupling between functionally distinct neural circuits. The episodic memory and language circuits were recruited in anticipation of upcoming referring expressions,
suggesting that context-sensitive predictions were spontaneously
generated. In contrast, the mentalizing areas were recruited on-demand, as a means for detecting and resolving perceived pragmatic anomalies, with little evidence they were activated to make partner-specific predictions about upcoming linguistic utterances.