Neurophysiology of language pathologies

Verga, L., Schwartze, M., & Kotz, S. A. (2023). Neurophysiology of language pathologies. In M. Grimaldi, E. Brattico, & Y. Shtyrov (Eds.), Language Electrified: Neuromethods (pp. 753-776). New York, NY: Springer US. doi:10.1007/978-1-0716-3263-5_24.
Language- and speech-related disorders are among the most frequent consequences of developmental and acquired pathologies. While classical approaches to the study of these disorders typically employed the lesion method to unveil one-to-one correspondence between locations, the extent of the brain damage, and corresponding symptoms, recent advances advocate the use of online methods of investigation. For example, the use of electrophysiology or magnetoencephalography—especially when combined with anatomical measures—allows for in vivo tracking of real-time language and speech events, and thus represents a particularly promising venue for future research targeting rehabilitative interventions. In this chapter, we provide a comprehensive overview of language and speech pathologies arising from cortical and/or subcortical damage, and their corresponding neurophysiological and pathological symptoms. Building upon the reviewed evidence and literature, we aim at providing a description of how the neurophysiology of the language network changes as a result of brain damage. We will conclude by summarizing the evidence presented in this chapter, while suggesting directions for future research.
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