The development of echo-subject markers in Southern Vanuatu

De Sousa, H. (2008). The development of echo-subject markers in Southern Vanuatu. In T. J. Curnow (Ed.), Selected papers from the 2007 Conference of the Australian Linguistic Society. Australian Linguistic Society.
One of the defining features of the Southern Vanuatu language family is the echo-subject (ES) marker (Lynch 2001: 177-178). Canonically, an ES marker indicates that the subject of the clause is coreferential with the subject of the preceding clause. This paper begins with a survey of the various ES systems found in Southern Vanuatu. Two prominent differences amongst the ES systems are: a) the level of obligatoriness of the ES marker; and b) the level of grammatical integration between an ES clauses and the preceding clause. The variation found amongst the ES systems reveals a clear path of grammaticalisation from the VP coordinator *ma in Proto–Southern Vanuatu to the various types of ES marker in contemporary Southern Vanuatu languages
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