Rebecca Frost

Presentations

Displaying 1 - 48 of 48
  • Cheung, R. W., Hartley, C., Dunn, K., Frost, R. L. A., & Monaghan, P. (2019). Environmental effects on parental teaching and infant word learning. Poster presented at the 4th Workshop on Infant Language Development (WILD 2019), Potsdam, Germany.
  • Cheung, R. W., Hartley, C., Dunn, K., Frost, R. L. A., & Monaghan, P. (2019). The role of gesture in parent teaching and infant word learning. Talk presented at the 4th Lancaster Conference on Infant and Early Child Development (LCICD 2019). Lancaster, UK. 2019-08-21 - 2019-08-23.
  • Dunn, K., Frost, R. L. A., & Monaghan, P. (2019). The effect of statistical frequency of multiple cues during infant cross-situational learning of word-referent mappings. Poster presented at the International Conference on Interdisciplinary Advances in Statistical Learning, Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain.
  • Frost, R. L. A. (2019). Statistical Learning in infants and adults, and its relationship with language development [invited talk]. Talk presented at the Typical and Atypical Language Acquisition Seminar Series, University of Potsdam. Potsdam, Germany. 2019-01-24.
  • Frost, R. L. A., Rowland, C. F., Durrant, S., Peter, M., Bidgood, A., & Monaghan, P. (2019). Statistical learning in infants, and its relationship with language development: A study of nonadjacent dependency learning. Talk presented at the 7th conference of the Scandinavian Association for Language and Cognition (SALC7). Aarhus, Denmark. 2019-05-22 - 2019-05-24.
  • Frost, R. L. A. (2019). Studying statistical learning in infants and adults [Invited talk]. Talk presented at EMLAR XV - Experimental Methods in Language Acquisition Research. Utrecht, The Netherlands. 2019-04-16 - 2019-04-18.
  • Frost, R. L. A., Isbilen, E. S., Christiansen, M. H., & Monaghan, P. (2019). Testing the limits of non-adjacent dependency learning: Statistical segmentation andgeneralization across domains. Poster presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci 2019), Montreal, Canada.
  • Isbilen, E. S., Frost, R. L. A., Monaghan, P., & Christiansen, M. H. (2019). Chunk-based statistical learning of non-adjacent dependencies. Talk presented at the International Conference on Interdisciplinary Advances in Statistical Learning. Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain. 2019-06-27 - 2019-06-29.
  • Isbilen, E. S., Frost, R. L. A., Monaghan, P., & Christiansen, M. H. (2019). Statistically-based chunking of nonadjacent dependencies. Talk presented at the 7th conference of the Scandinavian Association for Language and Cognition (SALC7). Aarhus, Denmark. 2019-05-22 - 2019-05-24.
  • Monaghan, P., Brand, J., Dunn, K., & Frost, R. L. A. (2019). The importance of being variable. Talk presented at the 5th International Language and Communicative Development Conference (LuCiD 2019). Manchester, UK. 2019-06-12 - 2019-06-13.
  • Stärk, K., Kidd, E., & Frost, R. L. A. (2019). A corpus analysis of the word segmentation cues in German child-directed speech. Poster presented at the 4th Lancaster Conference on Infant and Early Child Development (LCICD 2019), Lancaster, UK.
  • Frost, R. L. A. (2018). Individual differences in language development: Variation across learners. Talk presented at the Donders Session on Variation in Language Acquisition at the Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour. Nijmegen, The Netherlands. 2018-04-19.
  • Frost, R. L. A., Rowland, C. F., Durrant, S., Bidgood, A., & Monaghan, P. (2018). Exploring the relationship between infants' statistical learning ability and language development. Talk presented at the 4th Language and Communicative Development Conference (LuCiD 2018). Liverpool, UK. 2018-07-09 - 2018-09-10.
  • Frost, R. L. A., Rowland, C. F., Durrant, S., Bidgood, A., Peter, M., & Monaghan, P. (2018). Statistical learning in infant language acquisition: From segmenting speech to discovering structure. Talk presented at the Learning Language in Humans and Machines Conference (L2HM 2018). Paris, France. 2018-07-05 - 2018-07-06.
  • Frost, R. L. A., Rowland, C. F., Durrant, S., Bidgood, P. M., & Monaghan, P. (2018). Statistical learning in infants, and its relationship with language development: A study of nonadjacent dependency learning. Poster presented at Child Language Symposium (CLS 2018), Reading, UK.
  • Frost, R. L. A., Rowland, C. F., Durrant, S., Bidgood, P. M., & Monaghan, P. (2018). Statistical learning in infants, and its relationship with language development: A study of nonadjacent dependency learning. Poster presented at Architectures and Mechanisms for Language Processing (AMLaP 2018), Berlin, Germany.
  • Isbilen, E., Frost, R. L. A., Monaghan, P., & Christiansen, M. H. (2018). Bridging artificial and natural language learning: Comparing processing- and reflection-based measures of learning. Poster presented at the 40th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci 2018)., Madison, WI, USA.
  • Monaghan, P., Brand, J., & Frost, R. L. A. (2018). Resistance to variability from the environment in language learning: Cross-situational learning of words from multiple cues. Talk presented at Architectures and Mechanisms for Language Processing (AMLaP 2018). Berlin, Germany. 2018-09-06 - 2018-09-08.
  • Trotter, A. S., Monaghan, P., & Frost, R. L. A. (2018). Auditory-perceptual gestalts support the processing of phrase structure in comprehension. Poster presented at Architectures and Mechanisms for Language Processing (AMLaP 2018), Berlin, Germany.
  • Trotter, A. S., Monaghan, P., & Frost, R. L. A. (2018). Low-level vocal cues affect the acquisition of hierarchical structure. Poster presented at Architectures and Mechanisms for Language Processing (AMLaP 2018), Berlin, Germany.
  • Frost, R. L. A., Monaghan, P., & Christiansen, M. H. (2017). Probabilistic Use of High Frequency Words Helps Language Acquisition. Poster presented at 23rd Annual Conference on Architectures and Mechanisms for Language Processing (AMLaP), Lancaster, UK.
  • Frost, R. L. A. (2017). Language learning by numbers: Statistical language learning, from segmenting words to making sense of syntax. Talk presented at Psychology Departmental External Seminar Series 2017. Preston. 2017-03 - 2017-03.
  • Frost, R. L. A. (2017). The role of highly frequent marker words in infants’ and adults’ language learning: A review. Talk presented at LuCiD Annual Conference 2017. Lancaster, UK. 2017-07 - 2017-07.
  • Frost, R. L. A., Monaghan, P., & Christiansen, M. H. (2017). When often is better than always: variability in high frequency marker words helps language acquisition. Talk presented at International Conference on Interdisciplinary Advances on Statistical Learning. Bilbao, Spain. 2017-06-28 - 2017-06-30.

    Abstract

    High-frequency words have been found to benefit speech segmentation (Bortfeld, Morgan, Golinkoff, & Rathbun, 2005) and grammatical categorisation (Monaghan, Christiansen, & Chater, 2007) - possibly simultaneously (Frost, Monaghan & Christiansen, 2016). Previous studies have tested the effect of high-frequency words on language acquisition by presenting them reliably within the experimental language, however natural language contains noise and variability that may provide further opportunities for robust learning (Monaghan, 2017). We tested the effect of variability on learning by familiarising adults with continuous speech comprising repetitions of target words, which were preceded by one of two high-frequency marker words 100%, 67%, or 33% of the time, with marker words distinguishing targets into two categories. Participants completed speech segmentation and categorisation tests, followed by a cross-situational word learning task where the same target words present in the continuous speech were mapped onto referents from two different grammatical categories. There was a clear advantage of variability: the 67% group performed best on measures of segmentation, categorisation, and learning the meaning of words in the cross-situational learning task. The data indicate that variability can help learners to use the same high-frequency words to inform both speech segmentation and grammatical categorisation.
  • Frost, R. L. A. (2017). The Comparative Biology of Language: on the simultaneity of tasks in language processing. Talk presented at The Comparative Biology of Language. Leiden, Netherlands. 2017-04-03 - 2017-04-07.
  • Monaghan, P., Brand, J., & Frost, R. L. A. (2017). Combining multiple information sources for word learning: Computational and behavioural studies. Poster presented at 2nd Lancaster Conference on Infant and Child Development, Lancaster, UK.
  • Rowland, C. F., Peter, M., Durrant, S., Bidgood, A., Monaghan, P., Frost, R. L. A., Bannard, C., & Kidd, E. (2017). Does variation in infants’ statistical learning ability predict variation in vocabulary growth?. Talk presented at 18th European Conference on Developmental Psychology (ECDP 2017). Utrecht, The Netherlands. 2017-08-29 - 2017-09-01.
  • Frost, R. L. A., Monaghan, P., & Christiansen, M. H. (2016). High frequency words assist language acquisition. Poster presented at 22nd Conference on Architectures and Mechanisms for Language Processing, Bilbao, Spain.
  • Frost, R. L. A., Monaghan, P. J., & Christiansen, M. H. (2016). High frequency words can help language acquisition. Talk presented at the Fifth Implicit Learning Seminar. Lancaster, UK. 2016-06-23 - 2016-06-25.
  • Frost, R. L. A., Monaghan, P. J., Gomez, R., Visagie, K., & Christiansen, M. H. (2016). How do high frequency words assist language acquisition in 12-month-olds?. Poster presented at the 1st Lancaster Conference on Infant and Child Development, Lancaster, UK.
  • Frost, R. L. A., Monaghan, P., & Christiansen, M. H. (2016). How do high frequency words help language acquisition?. Poster presented at EPS London Meeting 2016, London, UK.

    Abstract

    Learners can extract transitional information from speech and use it to infer word boundaries and linguistic regularities. Critically, studies suggest that statistical language learning may benefit from the presence of high-frequency marker words (Bortfeld et al., 2005) that may act as anchors around which speech segmentation can occur, while also assisting with grammatical categorisation (Monaghan & Christiansen, 2010). To address these claims, we familiarised adults with a continuous stream of language comprising sequences of 8 bisyllabic target words, and compared learning to the same language but with high-frequency monosyllabic marker words preceding target words, and distinguishing them into two distributionally-defined categories. Participants completed a 2AFC testof segmentation, and a similarity judgement categorisation test containing word-pairs from the same versus different categories. We then tested transfer to a word-action/object learning task, where target word categories were either consistent or inconsistent with the action/object distinction. Participants segmented the speech stream better than chance, but only the marker word condition resulted in effective categorisation for the similarity judgement task. The advantage of marker words extended to the early stages of the word-learning task. Findings indicate that high-frequency marker words may assist grammatical categorisation even when they are not required for speech segmentation.
  • Frost, R. L. A., Peter, M., Durrant, S., Bidgood, A., Rowland, C. F., Monaghan, P., & Christiansen, M. H. (2016). How do infants use nonadjacent dependencies during language development?. Poster presented at Fifth Implicit Learning Seminar, Lancaster, UK.
  • Frost, R. L. A., Peter, M., Durrant, S., Bidgood, A., Rowland, C. F., Monaghan, P., & Christiansen, M. H. (2016). How do infants use nonadjacent dependencies during language development?. Poster presented at XX Biennial International Conference on Infant Studies, New Orleans, USA.
  • Trotter, A. S., Frost, R. L. A., & Monaghan, P. (2016). Multiple natural language cues assist the processing of hierarchical structure. Poster presented at 22nd Annual Conference on Architectures and Mechanisms for Language Processing (AMLaP), Bilbao, Spain.

    Abstract

    The existence of sentences containing hierarchical dependencies is taken as evidence that language is not a finite state system. Whilst phrase structure is necessary in producing these sentences, their comprehension may draw on linear processing. Testing processing of language structures can be controlled in laboratory studies by constructing artificial language fragments and examining participants’ learning of the structures therein. However, hierarchical artificial language structures are difficult to acquire, meaning that measuring their processing is difficult to accomplish. Prior studies have employed nonsense word sequences to determine the learning of hierarchically generated grammatical structures. These may derive from prosodic information: rhythmic cues can indicate structural dependencies at phrasal boundaries, and pitch information can also highlight hierarchical structure, with lower pitch variance within phrases than between phrases. Further, information about similarity within dependencies (e.g., knowing dogs chase cats, and cats meow constrains the meaning of “the cat the dog chases meows”) can promote processing of hierarchically-generated structures. More importantly, the type of process required to comprehend the sentence may then not require phrase structure, but instead may be consistent with finite state operations. Detection of similarity and grouping of material using prosodic information may instead bypass the need for more complex constructions. In the present study, we tested whether participants were able to use prosodic and similarity cues to process the grammatical structure of hierarchical centre embedded structures in an artificial language. Participants listened to sequences of a hierarchical centre embedded language, of the AnBn form (e.g. A1A2B2B1, where A1 and B1 always occur as a dependent pair). 80 participants took part in one of five conditions manipulating the presence of several cues: a baseline condition with no additional cues to the structure; a similarity condition, where dependent pairs shared phonological information; a pitch condition where the pitch change within dependent pairs was smaller than that between pairs; a rhythmic condition, where short pauses intervened at phrasal boundaries; and a condition that combined these cues. In the baseline condition, we found no evidence of learning, consistent with prior literature. Individual cues – particularly the phonological similarity cue – promoted learning in the later stages of training. The combined cues condition, however, processing was facilitated by multiple sources of information in the initial stages of training, before the advantage of individual cues was observed: to the early learner, a wealth of information is beneficial, though with greater expertise, individual cues can be used equally effectively.
  • Trotter, A. S., Frost, R. L. A., & Monaghan, P. (2016). Multiple natural language cues assist the processing of hierarchical structure. Poster presented at 15th Annual Meeting of Psycholinguistics in Flanders, Antwerpen, Belgium.

    Abstract

    The existence of sentences containing hierarchical dependencies is taken as evidence that language is not a finite state system. Whilst phrase structure is necessary in producing these sentences, their comprehension may draw on linear processing. Testing processing of language structures can be controlled in laboratory studies by constructing artificial language fragments and examining participants’ learning of the structures therein. However, hierarchical artificial language structures are difficult to acquire, meaning that measuring their processing is difficult to accomplish. Prior studies have employed nonsense word sequences to determine the learning of hierarchically generated grammatical structures. These may derive from prosodic information: rhythmic cues can indicate structural dependencies at phrasal boundaries, and pitch information can also highlight hierarchical structure, with lower pitch variance within phrases than between phrases. Further, information about similarity within dependencies (e.g., knowing dogs chase cats, and cats meow constrains the meaning of “the cat the dog chases meows”) can promote processing of hierarchically-generated structures. More importantly, the type of process required to comprehend the sentence may then not require phrase structure, but instead may be consistent with finite state operations. Detection of similarity and grouping of material using prosodic information may instead bypass the need for more complex constructions. In the present study, we tested whether participants were able to use prosodic and similarity cues to process the grammatical structure of hierarchical centre embedded structures in an artificial language. Participants listened to sequences of a hierarchical centre embedded language, of the AnBn form (e.g. A1A2B2B1, where A1 and B1 always occur as a dependent pair). 80 participants took part in one of five conditions manipulating the presence of several cues: a baseline condition with no additional cues to the structure; a similarity condition, where dependent pairs shared phonological information; a pitch condition where the pitch change within dependent pairs was smaller than that between pairs; a rhythmic condition, where short pauses intervened at phrasal boundaries; and a condition that combined these cues. In the baseline condition, we found no evidence of learning, consistent with prior literature. Individual cues – particularly the phonological similarity cue – promoted learning in the later stages of training. The combined cues condition, however, processing was facilitated by multiple sources of information in the initial stages of training, before the advantage of individual cues was observed: to the early learner, a wealth of information is beneficial, though with greater expertise, individual cues can be used equally effectively.
  • Trotter, A. S., Frost, R. L. A., & Monaghan, P. (2016). Natural language cues, and the acquisition of artificial grammars. Poster presented at Fifth Implicit Learning Seminar, Lancaster, UK.

    Abstract

    Language is composed of complex grammatical structures that learners must make sense of in order to achieve linguistic proficiency. Key questions concern how learners come to realise that these structures are present in the language input, and how they grow to understand the purpose they serve. Much research has tested learners’ processing of language structures in laboratory studies by training participants on artificial languages, and examining their learning of the structures they contain. For example, prior work has shown that learners can extract transitional information from language input, and use it to identify word boundaries (e.g. Saffran et al., 1996) and grammatical regularities, such as non-adjacent dependencies (e.g. Frost & Monaghan, 2016). However, successful acquisition of statistically defined recursive structures has proven notoriously difficult to achieve, making measuring the way that learners process them even more difficult to accomplish. Previous studies have tended to use sequences of nonsense words to determine learning of recursive structures. Natural language, in comparison, contains multiple other sources of information to support the processing of dependencies within recursive sentences. Key structural information is provided by; prosody (learners have been found to use voice pitch directional changes to indicate phrase boundaries), rhythm (pauses occur in speech at phrase boundaries), and information about semantic relationships within dependencies (e.g., knowing that dogs chase cats, and that cats meow, helps us to determine the meaning of “the cat the dog chases meows”). In a series of experimental studies, we show that the addition of explicit phonological cues - reflecting similarity across dependent elements in recursive structures - facilitates learning. We found no evidence of prosodic pitch cues promoting learning in isolation. However, rhythmic cues did seem to support learning, and combining all three cues resulted in the best performance of all. Our results indicate that learners are able to use phonological and rhythmic information in isolation to support learning of recursive structures. In addition, we show that learners are able to combine phonological, rhythmic, and prosodic information to assist in acquisition of recursive structures.
  • Frost, R. L. A., & Monaghan, P. (2015). How do high frequency words assist language acquisition in infant and adult learners?. Talk presented at the LuCiD Annual Mini Conference 2015. Liverpool, UK. 2015-10-06.
  • Frost, R. L. A. (2015). Using actigraphy for sleep research. Talk presented at Lancaster University’s Sleep Research Workshop. Lancaster, UK. 2015-06.
  • Frost, R. (2015). Using statistics to learn words and rules from speech. Talk presented at SLLAT Research Group, Department of Linguistics and English Language. 2015-12. 2015-12.
  • Frost, R. L. A., & Monaghan, P. (2015). Simultaneous segmentation and generalisation from nonadjacent dependencies. Poster presented at Interdisciplinary Advances in Statistical Learning 2015, San Sebastian, Spain.
  • Frost, R. L. A., & Monaghan, P. (2015). Simultaneous segmentation and generalisation of non-adjacent dependencies. Poster presented at Interdisciplinary Advances in Statistical Learning, San Sebastian, Spain.
  • Frost, R. L. A., & Monaghan, P. (2015). Sleep-driven computations in speech processing. Poster presented at New Directions in Implicit and Explicit Language Learning symposium, Lancaster, UK.
  • Frost, R. L. A. (2014). Learning nonadjacent dependencies with and without sleep. Talk presented at Child Language Workshop. Alston Hall, UK. 2014-05.
  • Frost, R. (2014). Segmenting sequences of speech and shapes: the use of cues across modalities. Poster presented at the Experimental Psychology Society January Meeting, London, UK.
  • Frost, R. L. A. (2013). Learning or exaptation of cues for language acquisition: Use of lengthening for speech segmentation. Talk presented at PsyPAG Annual Conference. Lancaster, UK. 2013-07-16.
  • Frost, R., Monaghan, P., & St. Clair, M. (2012). Learner-driven computations in speech processing: effects of sleep on word identification and grammar learning. Poster presented at AMLaP (Architectures and Mechanisms for Language Processing) 2012, Riva del Garda, Italy.

    Supplementary material

    http://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/72371/
  • Frost, R. L. A. (2013). Learning language structure with and without sleep. Talk presented at Psycholinguistics Research Group, Department of Psychology. York, UK. 2013-11 - 2013-11.
  • Frost, R. (2011). The effect of sleep on the consolidation of second-order phonotactic constraints. Poster presented at Postgraduate Conference University of York, York, UK.

    Supplementary material

    http://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/72372/

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